FORmula TRANslation(FORTRAN), One of the oldest programming languages,was developed by a team of programmers at IBM led by John Backus, and was first published in 1957. It was designed to allow easy translation of math formulas into code.
Common Business Oriented Language(COBOL), was one of the earliest high-level programming languages.It was developed in 1959 by a committee of researchers from private industry, universities, and government called the Conference on Data Systems Languages (CODASYL) during the second half of 1959.The name defines its primary domain in business, finance, and administrative systems for companies and governments.
Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC),invented by Thomas Kurtz and John Kemeny at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire in 1964.It is a very powerful language as a tool for the novice programmer.Despite its simplicity, BASIC is used for a wide variety of business applications.Mny new languages influenced by BASIC, such as Microsoft’s Visual Basic.
Pascal is an influential imperative and procedural programming language, designed in 1968–1969 and published in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth,named in honor of the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal.It is intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring.
C is a general-purpose programming language initially developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at AT&T Bell Labs.It is one of the most widely used programming languages of all time.
Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish and British trained computer scientist, began his work on C++’s predecessor “C with Classes” in 1979.In 1983, it was renamed from C with Classes to C++ (++ being the increment operator in C). It is a general purpose programming language that is free-form and compiled.
Python was conceived in the late 1980s and its implementation was started in December 1989 by Guido van Rossum at CWI in the Netherlands as a successor to the ABC language (itself inspired by SETL) capable of exception handling and interfacing with the Amoeba operating system.
Perl is a family of high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages.Wall began work on Perl in 1987, while working as a programmer at Unisys, and released version 1.0 to the comp.sources.misc newsgroup on December 18, 1987.
Ruby is a dynamic, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. It was designed and developed in the mid-1990s by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto in Japan.
James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton initiated the Java language project in June 1991.The language was initially called Oak after an oak tree that stood outside Gosling’s office; it went by the name Green later, and was later renamed Java.It is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
PHP:hypertext PReprocessor(PHP),is a server-side scripting language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language.PHP development began in 1994 when the developer Rasmus Lerdorf wrote a series of Common Gateway Interface (CGI) Perl scripts, which he used to maintain his personal homepage. The reference implementation of PHP is now produced by The PHP Group.
Here you can see how PHP page is transferred from server to browser:
- Visual Basic
Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its COM programming model first released in 1991.
C Sharp is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, procedural, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.It was first appeared in 2000.
Active Server Pages(ASP), was Microsoft’s first server-side script engine for dynamically generated web pages.Initially released as an add-on to Internet Information Services (IIS) via the Windows NT 4.0 Option Pack (ca. 1996), it was subsequently included as a free component of Windows Server (since the initial release of Windows 2000 Server). ASP.NET, first released in January 2002, has superseded ASP.
.NET Framework is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows. It includes a large library and provides language interoperability (each language can use code written in other languages) across several programming languages.It was released in 2002.
Hyper Text Markup Language(HTML),initially released in 1993, is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text, images and other material into visual or audible web pages. Default characteristics for every item of HTML markup are defined in the browser, and these characteristics can be altered or enhanced by the web page designer’s additional use of CSS.
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS),initially released in 1996, is a style sheet language used for describing the look and formatting of a document written in a markup language. CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content from document presentation, including elements such as the layout, colors, and fonts.
Extensible Markup Language(XML),started in 1996, is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.